Big data can be explained by understanding the following key aspects:
Volume. There is no specific quantification that says volume above these many terabytes will be called Big data. What volume one considers as threshold depends on the perspective and the year we are in (big data is a moving target). However, this large volume of data is mostly the cost-free byproduct of digital interaction such as consumers buying stuff off online shops.
Velocity. The speed at which data is generated and processed. Big data is often available in real time.
Variety. The type and nature of data. Big data draws from text, images, audio, video; plus it completes missing pieces through data fusion.
Data must be processed with advanced tools (analytics and algorithms) to reveal meaningful information. Big data is not about asking why, but about detecting patterns. Information generation algorithms must detect and address visible and invisible issues and factors.
Parallel computing tools are needed to handle data.
Often “inductive statistics” are used to infer laws (relationships, causal effects) from large sets of data to reveal relationships or dependencies or to perform predictions of outcomes and behaviours.
Artificial intelligence deals with mimicking the way the human brain works or evolution of life and other such natural phenomena. Here are some of the artificial intelligence techniques:
Artificial Neural Networks
Artificial Neural Networks are inspired by the way the brain works. A neural network consists of a network of nodes. Each node is capable of making a simplistic decision or a simple calculation on the inputs, and providing an output. By interconnecting a large number of such nodes, it is possible to do data analysis and complex decision making. Each node has a threshold assigned and each connection between nodes is assigned a weight. A random NN is constructed to begin with. This is then “trained” by providing inputs, and matching given outputs against pre-calculated known outputs. When a mismatch is detected between current output and favoured output, the weights and thresholds are suitably modified.
Genetic algorithms are based on the process of evolution and natural selection. To begin with a pool of random “algorithms” is built. Each such algorithm is tested with given input and required output. Those algorithms that give results closest to the desired outcome are selected. Thereafter the next generation is built by combining pairs of algorithms from the previous generation and adding more steps (random mutation). This generation is again tested for fitness. This process is repeated as many times as needed. The algorithms keep increasing in complexity with each generation.
Good quality English translations of Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji are very rare, if any. In any case, the words of Brahmgyanis (People who are in tune with the Celestial Formless Creator) can be understood completely only by Brahmgyanis. It is like asking someone who has never seen an elephant, but only read about it, to describe how an elephant looks like. However, your spiritual journey needs a starting point. For me, this has always been kathas (spoken discourse) of Giani Maskeen ji, or the Punjabi translation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji by Prof. Sahib Singh ji.
Please find attached interpretations of the Sukhmani Sahib (one of the many prayers withing Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji) in English. This commentary pulls out key thoughts from the Sukhmani Sahib and tries to explain. This is work in progress, only a short part completed so far.
Sikhs treat Sri Guru Granth Sahib as the Living Treasure of Knowledge, as the Guiding Master on the spiritual journey and embodiment of Word form of the God. The word Guru literally means a teacher in Hindi. The advice that comes from Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji is timeless and unchanging, rather than worldly knowledge which is ever changing.
What does the Guru say about the kind of teaching that needs to be practiced with the students? Read below:
ਪਾਧਾ ਪੜਿਆ ਆਖੀਐ ਬਿਦਿਆ ਬਿਚਰੈ ਸਹਜਿ ਸੁਭਾਇ ॥
We call person learned, if through the internalisation of his knowledge, he finds peace and his mind stays at rest.
ਬਿਦਿਆ ਸੋਧੈ ਤਤੁ ਲਹੈ ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਇ ॥
He ventures inwards through the map of his knowledge, and by focusing attention on the True Name he attunes to Divine One.
ਮਨਮੁਖੁ ਬਿਦਿਆ ਬਿਕ੍ਰਦਾ ਬਿਖੁ ਖਟੇ ਬਿਖੁ ਖਾਇ ॥
The self willed teacher (who has not subdued his mind) is only a knowledge seller. Little does he know that this trade is a poison that finishes the spiritual purpose of his life.
ਮੂਰਖੁ ਸਬਦੁ ਨ ਚੀਨਈ ਸੂਝ ਬੂਝ ਨਹ ਕਾਇ ॥੫੩॥
Such people are fools, they have not understood the Eternal Word and have no intuitive knowledge.
ਪਾਧਾ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਆਖੀਐ ਚਾਟੜਿਆ ਮਤਿ ਦੇਇ ॥
A wise teacher follows precisely the teachings of God Guru and gives the same instruction to his disciples.
ਨਾਮੁ ਸਮਾਲਹੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਸੰਗਰਹੁ ਲਾਹਾ ਜਗ ਮਹਿ ਲੇਇ ॥
He tells his students to praise the Lord’s Name, the manifestation of God. To collect Naam which is the only profitable trade in this world.
ਸਚੀ ਪਟੀ ਸਚੁ ਮਨਿ ਪੜੀਐ ਸਬਦੁ ਸੁ ਸਾਰੁ ॥
His own heart becomes the slate on which he writes the word of the True Guru, and thus his own mind is cleansed of evil. This is the best learning.
ਨਾਨਕ ਸੋ ਪੜਿਆ ਸੋ ਪੰਡਿਤੁ ਬੀਨਾ ਜਿਸੁ ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮੁ ਗਲਿ ਹਾਰੁ ॥੫੪॥੧॥
Such a teacher is then called wise and learned who wears the garland of Lord’s Name
Traditionally, Guru Nanak Dev ji’s prakash purab (the day He spread forth His light on this earth) is celebrated on the full moon night of a specific lunar month. This year, this day coincided with the Supermoon. Here is a photo of the Golden Temple with the supermoon visible in the background:
My message sent out for this year’s Gurpurab greeting:
Kot karam karai hao dhare || Sram pavai sagle birthare || (278)
Hao vich maya, Hao vich chhaya || (466)
Kirpa kare je aapni, tan Gur ka Shabad kamahe || Nanak kahai sunho jano, eet sanjam dukh jai || (466)
By engaging in good deeds alone we cannot lose our egoistical pride. This pride causes to remain attached to Maya, and deprives us from appreciating Divine Bounties. Even millions of good deeds, done under the false influence of Maya – go waste. While we may have laboured, we do not receive Divine Respect. Reciting the Lord’s Name under the True Guru’s instructions, this veil of ego is removed and we are enraptured in Divine Love. Such a path is obtained by great fortune, and through the Lotus Feet of the Guru. Dhan Guru Nanak.
One of the central teachings of Guru Nanak was to see God as embodied in His Creation and recitation of His Greatness with loving devotion.